Guide Artificial cilia

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Fluid Mech. Marrase, C. Grazing in a turbulent environment: energy dissipation, encounter rates, and efficacy of feeding currents in Centropages hamatus. USA 87 , — Gilpin, W. Vortex arrays and ciliary tangles underlie the feeding-swimming tradeoff in starfish larvae.

The flagella of bacteria propel using a wheel and axle mechanism.

Afzelius, B. The fine structure of the cilia from ctenophore swimming-plates. Cell Biol. Sampaio, P. Left-right organizer flow dynamics: how much cilia activity reliably yields laterality?

First ever synthetic cilia created

Cell 29 , — Lodish, H. In Molecular Cell Biology. Section Huang, B. Microscale imaging of cilia-driven fluid flow. Life Sci.

Printed artificial cilia from liquid-crystal network actuators modularly driven by light.

Funfak, A. Paramecium swimming and ciliary beating patterns: a study on four RNA interference mutations. Satir, P. A structural basis for how motile cilia beat. Bioscience 64 , — Kovarik, M. Micro total analysis systems for cell biology and biochemical assays. Toonder, J. Trends Biotechnol. Mills, Z. Beating synthetic cilia enhance heat transport in microfluidic channels. Soft Matter 8 , — Masoud, H. Harnessing synthetic cilia to regulate motion of microparticles.

Alexeev, A. Designing synthetic, pumping cilia that switch the flow direction in microchannels. Langmuir 24 , — Oh, K.

Supporting Information

Characterization of mixing performance for bio-mimetic silicone cilia. Nanofluidics 9 , — Branscomb, J. Designing ciliated surfaces that regulate deposition of solid particles. Soft Matter 6 , — Wang, Y. A continuous roll-pulling approach for the fabrication of magnetic artificial cilia with microfluidic pumping capability. Lab Chip 16 , — Out of the cleanroom, self-assembled magnetic artificial cilia. Lab Chip 13 , — Fahrni, F. Micro-fluidic actuation using magnetic artificial cilia.

Lab Chip 9 , Laser, D.

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A review of micropumps. Artificial cilia for active micro-fluidic mixing. Lab Chip 8 , Hussong, J. Experimental investigation of the flow induced by artificial cilia. Lab Chip 11 , — Khaderi, S.

Artificial Cilia for Microfluidics Particle Capture

Nature-inspired microfluidic propulsion using magnetic actuation. E 79 , Breaking of symmetry in microfluidic propulsion driven by artificial cilia. E 82 , Fluid—structure interaction of three-dimensional magnetic artificial cilia. Magnetically-actuated artificial cilia for microfluidic propulsion.

Self-Emitting Artificial Cilia Produced by Field Effect Spinning

Magnetically actuated artificial cilia: the effect of fluid inertia. Langmuir 28 , — Microfluidic propulsion by the metachronal beating of magnetic artificial cilia: a numerical analysis. Chateau, S.

Transport efficiency of metachronal waves in 3D cilium arrays immersed in a two-phase flow. Ghosh, R. Designing oscillating cilia that capture or release microscopic particles. Langmuir 26 , — Ballard, M. Enhancing nanoparticle deposition using actuated synthetic cilia. Nanofluidics 17 , — Balazs, A. Designing bioinspired artificial cilia to regulate particle—surface interactions. Hanasoge, S. Hesketh, P.

Asymmetric motion of magnetically actuated artificial cilia. Lab Chip 17 , — Xia, Y. Soft lithography. Yeh, P. Biomimetic flexible plate actuators are faster and more efficient with a passive attachment. Acta Mech. Roper, M. On the dynamics of magnetically driven elastic filaments. Babataheri, A. Tethered fleximags as artificial cilia. Dreyfus, R. Microscopic artificial swimmers. Nature , — Download references.

Correspondence to Peter J. Reprints and Permissions. Advanced Functional Materials Soft Matter Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subjects Engineering Physics. Abstract One of the vital functions of naturally occurring cilia is fluid transport. Introduction Achieving fluid transport at the microscale is particularly difficult owing to the lack of inertial effects 1 , 2. Methods Fabrication We employ surface micromachining techniques involving a simple two-mask lithographic process.

Setup and experimental protocol of pumping experiments To study the fluid pumped by the cilia, we incorporated an array of cilia inside a microchannel loop. Full size image. Results and discussion The soft magnetic cilia get magnetized in the presence of an external magnetic field and tend to align along the direction of the field. All arrays have four rows of cilia with 25 cilia per row. Conclusions We demonstrate fluid pumping by an array of beating magnetic cilia. References 1. Article Google Scholar 3. Article Google Scholar 4. Article Google Scholar 5. Article Google Scholar 6.

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Metachronal Motion of Magnetic Artificial Cilia

Scientific Reports [15 Mar , 8 1 ]. Type: Research Support, Non-U. Abstract The zebrafish sperm activation profoundly depends upon the homogeneous mixing of the sperm cells with its diluent in a quick succession as it alters the cell's extracellular medium and initiates their motility. Manual stirring, the traditional method for zebrafish sperm activation is tedious, time-consuming, and has a poor outcome. In this aspect, an artificial cilia embedded serpentine microfluidic is designed through which hydrodynamic factors of the microfluidic environment can be precisely regulated to harness uniform mixing, hence ensuring a superior sperm activation.