The attitude reinforced from was that Japan was to be a powerful nation, equal at least to the Western powers. The government published official text books for all levels of student, and reinforced that with cultural activities, seminars, etc. Emphasis on the texts such as the Kokutai-no-shugi in schools was intended to emphasize the "uniqueness of Japan" from ancient centuries.
These cultural courses were supplemented with military and survival courses against foreign invasion. Apart from indoctrination in nationalism and religion, children and school students received military drills survival, first aid. These were taken further by the Imperial Youth Federation ; college students were trained, and some recruited, for home defense and regular military units.
Making Tea, Making Japan: Cultural Nationalism in Practice
Young women received first aid training. All of these actions were said to be taken to ensure Japan's safety, and protect against larger and more dangerous countries. In , the Japanese Government organized the Teiseito Imperial Gubernative Party , one of the first nationalist parties in the country.
The wars against China and Russia were modern wars, and demanded a nationalist expression of patriotic sentiment. From this period, the Yasukuni Shrine founded in was converted into a focus for nationalist sentiment, and received state patronage until the end of World War II. Yasukuni was dedicated to those Japanese and non-Japanese who had lost their lives serving Japan, and includes all war deaths from domestic and overseas conflicts from — and none from any conflicts since , but also civilians women and students and civil administration in colonies and occupied territories.
Between and , the central government organized the "Peace Preservation Department" an antisubversive police section , and prosecuted all local communists who proposed a socialist form of government. The Japanese Army organized the Kempeitai military police service. Dissent was controlled by the usage of political and press repression , with the Peace Preservation Law permitting police to restrict freedom of expression and freedom to assemble.
Since the Meiji restoration, the central figure of the state was the emperor. According to the constitution, the emperor was Head of State article 4 and Supreme Commander of the Army and the Navy article Japanese citizens were rallied to the "Defensive State" or "Consensus State", in which all efforts of the nation supported collective objectives, by guidance from national myths , history, and dogma — thus obtaining a "national consensus".
Democratic institutions were installed in with the promulgation of a constitution and continued to acquire legitimacy until the s, when they fell into disrepute. Concerns that irresponsible political parties could have too great an influence over vital military affairs introduced a rule that the Army alone should nominate the Army Minister in civilian government. This permitted the army to have a de facto veto over civilian governments by having the power to refuse to nominate a candidate.
This policy was introduced in law in but abolished in It was reintroduced in , cementing military influence over government after that time. The political system of Japan became subverted by the military throughout the s from repeated attempted coups, and independent militarist interventions. The invasion of Manchuria after elements in the army manufactured an incident to justify a takeover was accomplished without instruction from the Tokyo government.
This showed the impotence of the civilian government to have any influence over the impulses of the army. Governments become increasingly passive, allowing agency and direction of the state to fall to disparate competing elements of the army. The role of the emperor remained highly prestigious, with various factions competing to advocate their interpretation of what the emperor "truly" wanted.
After the war, scrutiny of the emperors role in the war and militarism intensified. For many historians such as Akira Fujiwara , Akira Yamada, Peter Wetzler, Herbert Bix and John Dower , the work done by Douglas MacArthur and SCAP during the first months of the occupation of Japan to exonerate Hirohito and all the imperial family from criminal prosecutions in the Tokyo tribunal was the predominant factor in the campaign to diminish in retrospect the role played by the emperor during the war.
For Fujiwara, "the thesis that the Emperor, as an organ of responsibility, could not reverse cabinet decision, is a myth fabricated after the war. During the s, right-wing nationalist beliefs became an increasingly dominant force. State support for Shinto encouraged a belief in the mythological history of Japan and thus led to mysticism and cultural chauvinism. Some secret societies took up ultranationalism and Japan-centered radical ideas. Some of the nationalist ideas can be attributed to the ideologue Ikki Kita — , an Amur River Society member.
This book was banned, but certain military circles read in it in the early s. Kita's plan was phrased in terms of freeing the Emperor from weak or treasonous counsellors. After suspending the constitution, and dissolving the Diet , the Emperor and his military defenders should work for a "collectivist direct voluntarism" to unify people and leaders.
Harmony with the working classes would be sought by the abolition of the aristocracy and austerity for the Imperial House.
Nationalism and History in Contemporary Japan
Overseas, Japan would free Asia of Western influence. The Amur River Society was later instrumental in the Manchurian incident. The Japanese Navy was in general terms more traditionalist, in defending ancient values and the sacred nature of the Emperor; the Japanese Army was more forward-looking, in the sense of valuing primarily strong leadership, as is evidenced by the use of the coup and direct action.
The Navy typically preferred political methods. The Army, ultimately, was the vehicle for the hypernationalists, anti-communists, anticapitalists, antiparliamentarians, and Nationalist-Militarist ideals. The military were considered politically "clean" in terms of political corruption , additionally assuming responsibility for 'restoring' the security of the nation.
The armed forces took up criticism of the traditional democratic parties and regular government for many reasons low funds for the armed forces, compromised national security, weakness of the leaders. They were also, by their composition, closely aware of the effects of economic depression on the middle and lower classes, and the communist threat.
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Both branches gained in power as they administered the exterior provinces and military preparations. This last was founded by Dr. Okawa served as a conduit by which Kita Ikki 's ideas reached young nationalist officers on the right. Violent coups took place, and the Kwantung Army made, in effect unilaterally, the decision to invade Manchuria.
Beyond the Rising Sun: Nationalism in Contemporary Japan - Bruce Stronach - Google книги
This was then treated as a fait accompli by Government and Emperor. During Prince Konoe proclaimed the Shintaisei New National Structure , making Japan into an "advanced state of National Defense", and the creation of the Taisei Yokusankai Imperial Authority Assistance Association , for organizing a centralized "consensus state". Associated are the government creation of the Tonarigumi residents' committees. The official academic texts included Kokutai no Hongi and Shinmin no Michi. Both presented a view of Japan's history and the Japanese ideal to unite East and West.
The economic doctrines of the " Yen block " were in transformed to the "Great Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere" Plan, as a basis for the Japanese national finances, and conquest plans. There was a history of perhaps two decades behind these moves. The Japanese theorists , such as Saneshige Komaki , concerned with Mainland Asia, knew the geostrategic theory of Halford Mackinder , expressed in the book Democratic Ideas and Reality. This is protected from sea attack, by deserts and mountains, and is vulnerable only on its west side, and to advanced technology from Europe.
This zone is vast and possesses natural resources and raw materials, does not possess major farming possibilities, and has very little population. Mackinder thought in terms of land and sea power: the latter can outflank the former, and carry out distant logistical operations, but needs adequate bases. These geopolitical ideas coincided with the theories of Lieutenant Colonel Kanji Ishiwara , sent in to Manchuria to spy. The Army adopted them, in the form of the Strike North Group. The Navy, on the other hand, was interested in the southerly direction of expansion. An extended debate ensued, resolved in the end by the stern experience of Japan's armed conflicts with the Soviet Union in This tipped the balance towards the 'South' plan, and the Pearl Harbor attack that precipitated the Pacific War in He was a supporter of radical political experiments.
He read Karl Marx and Max Stirner , and other radical philosophers. With Fumimaro Konoe and Fusanosuke Kuhara , they created a revolutionary radical-right policy. These revolutionary groups later had the help of several important personages, making reality to some certain ideas of the nationalist-militarist policy with practical work in Manchukuo.
Tojo later became War Minister and Prime Minister in the Konoe cabinet, Matsuoka Foreign Minister, and Hoshino chief of Project departments charged with establishing a new economic structure for Japan. Other groups created were the Government Imperial Aid Association. Involved in both was Colonel Kingoro Hashimoto , who proposed a Nationalist single party dictatorship, combined with a state-run economy.
The militarists had strong support from the wealthy owners of major industries, but there were also certain socialist-nationalist sentiments on the part of radical officers. The "New Asia Day" celebration was to remember the sacred mission of extending influence to nearby Asian nations. The Japanese government, possibly following the German example of a "Worker's Front" State Syndicate, ultimately organized the Nation Service Society to group all the trades unions in the country.
All syndicates of the "Japanese Workers Federation" were integrated into this controlling body. The Press and other communication media were managed under the Information Department of the Home Ministry. Radio Tokyo was charged with disseminating all official information around the world.
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